Saturday, May 23, 2020

State and Church Essay examples - 1279 Words

Christopher Columbus and Cabeza de Vaca were two known adventurers, one being an explorer and the other as a treasurer. Both men had great reputations, which led to positions of high status. Cabeza de Vaca became the treasurer on an expedition to explore the Gulf coast as a young nobleman and Christopher Columbus went on many expeditions to explore lands of treasure and jewels of all sorts. Both men explored in a time in which the lands were controlled by church and state and because of this, pressure of enormous amounts were placed on the shoulders of these men. The misfortunes these men encountered on their expeditions led them to choose a side in which they tried to disguise their true outcomes. Cabeza de Vaca and Christopher Columbus†¦show more content†¦Cabeza de Vaca shows that he could not have retaliated or even injured them because they were hidden in places where they could not be seen. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;As Cabeza de Vaca continues, his encounters seemingly becomes harsher and he starts to relate these outcomes to God. Cabeza de Vaca also relates the losses to not only the surprising attack of the Indians and their camouflage within the surroundings but also to weaponry they used and the way they used them, â€Å" The bows they use are as thick as the arm, of eleven or twelve palms in length, which they will discharge at two hundred paces with so great precision that they miss nothing†(pg.131). In chapter eight of Cabeza de Vaca log is where you start to see the experiences are in the name of God. Cabeza de Vaca starts to describe the land and the troubles of it including the harsh conditions of resources not being available, â€Å" I cease here to relate more of this, because any one may suppose what would occur in a country so remote and malign, so destitute of all resources, whereby either to live in it or go out of it; but most certain assistance is in God,Show MoreRelatedThe Separation Of Church And State902 Words   |  4 PagesA Closer look at the Separation of Church and State in the United States Although â€Å"God† is mentioned in the Constitution, this country was built upon the principle of separation of church and state. Despite this ideal, those elected into office: propose, pass, and deny laws based on their religious beliefs, completely disregarding the previously mentioned principle. The problem with that is that the country is so ethnically and culturally diverse that one religion representing an entire nation ofRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State1095 Words   |  5 PagesThe separation of church and state has been encountered and challenged several times in the Supreme Court, which was first mentioned by Thomas Jefferson. However it is not solidly stated in the Constitution on what is right or wrong and good or bad. This theory was modified from various elements from the Constitution essentially the first and fourteenth amendments. In the first amendment it is written Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion or prohibiting the free exerciseRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State1446 Words   |  6 Pagesseparation of church and state still necessary in the overall legal and social aspects of a modern society such as the United States? Research and history show that maintaining the church separate from the government is important for the ongoing success of a free and well functioning society. Separation of church and state is a political and legal doctrine which states that government and religious institutions are to be kept separate and independent from one another. Ideally, the church should notRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State Essay1513 Words   |  7 PagesSeparation of church and state is a defined as, the understanding of the intent, and function of the Establishment Clause, and Free Exercise Clause. The Combination of church and state has been a topic that, many generations have struggled with for centuries. The first amendment of the constitution states that â€Å"Congress shall make no law about our religious beliefs, or prohibiting our free exercise of religion† If we put our faith in the constitution to define the founding father’s standpoint ofRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State Essay1455 Words   |  6 PagesSeparation of Church and State. This statement has not only caused controversy in the â€Å"rights† a church has, but h as also lessened the impact a person of faith can have on society. Separation of Church and State has been falsely identified as being a part of the first amendment, however it is directly stated in the US Constitution that Congress shall make no law prohibiting the practice of a religion or prohibiting the practice of this religion in the eyes of society. Not once is Separation of Church and StateRead MoreThe Separation Of Church And State Essay1641 Words   |  7 PagesThe separation between church and state is a debate that continues to grow with tension as the culture of America rapidly polarizes. A long-standing claim that America was founded on Christian doctrine is a common argument in favor of the church and state to remain together, yet the most commonly used metaphor explaining what the â€Å"Separation of Church and State† contextually means in today’s terms is simply that government and religion should not coincide with one another in any capacity. Evide nceRead MoreThe separation of church and state1200 Words   |  5 PagesThe separation of church and state has been a long debated topic in the history of America. Although founded upon Christian ideals, the framers of the Constitution explicitly outlined the government to function secularly, in what is commonly referred to as the â€Å"Establishment Clause†. When interpreting the Constitution in regards to religion, there are two primary philosophies. The first philosophy this paper will explore will be referred to as Positive Toleration. In general, the idea of positiveRead MoreSeparation of Church and State685 Words   |  3 PagesThe United States of America was founded on the basis of religious freedom. Judgment on the legality of the Separation of Church and State should not be based on one’s religion. The phrase â€Å"Separation of church and state† sometimes known as â€Å"wall of separation between church and state†, is a phrase used by Thomas Jefferson in understanding the two clauses of the First Amendment to the Constitution of the United States: Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause. The public education systemRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State1717 Words   |  7 PagesSeparation of Church and State Separation of church and state has long been regarded as a foundation of American democracy. At the same time, the concept has remained highly controversial in the popular culture and law. Much of the debate over the application and meaning of the phrase focuses on its historical antecedents. The reason I chose this specific topic is due to the fact I’m a devout Christian and I also have strong interest in political science. In this paper I will briefly explain someRead MoreSeparation Of Church And State1825 Words   |  8 PagesSeparation of church and state refers to the division of the relationship between religion and government. Various laws apply to different countries around the world about the separation of church and state. Some involve religion so much into their daily lives; it controls how their country is run. In other places, where it is not mandated as much, it becomes a problem in disputing what is and what is not right. The United States of America faces this issue as they struggle deciding what the meaning

Monday, May 11, 2020

Normans - Medieval Viking Rulers in France and England

The Normans (from the Latin Normanni and Old Norse for north men) were ethnic Scandinavian Vikings who settled in northwest France in the early 9th century AD. They controlled the region known as Normandy until the mid 13th century. In 1066, the most famous of the Normans, William the Conqueror, invaded England and conquered the resident Anglo-Saxons; after William, several kings of England including Henry I and II and Richard the Lionheart were Normans and ruled both regions. Dukes of Normandy Rollo the Walker 860-932, ruled Normandy 911-928, married Gisla (daughter of Charles the Simple)William Longsword  ruled 928-942Richard I (the Fearless), born 933, ruled 942-996 married Hugh the Greats daughter Emma, then GunnorRichard II (The Good) ruled 996-1026 married JudithRichard III ruled 1026-1027Robert I (The Magnificent, or The Devil) ruled 1027-1035 (Richard IIIs brother) William the Conquerer, 1027-1087, ruled 1035-1087, also King of England after 1066, married Matilda of Flanders Robert II (Curthose), ruled Normandy 1087-1106 Henry I (Beauclerc) b. 1068, King of England 1100-1135 Henry II b. 1133, ruled England 1154-1189 Richard the Lionheart also King of England 1189-1216John Lackland Vikings in France By the 830s, the Vikings arrived from Denmark and began raiding in what is today France, finding the standing Carolingian government in the midst of an ongoing civil war. The Vikings were only one of several groups who found the weakness of the Carolingian empire an attractive target. The Vikings used the same tactics in France as they did in England: plundering the monasteries, markets and towns; imposing tribute or Danegeld on the people they conquered; and killing the bishops, disrupting ecclesiastical life and causing a sharp decline in literacy. The Vikings became permanent settlers with the express collusion of Frances rulers, although many of the grants were simply a recognition of de facto Viking control of the region. Temporary settlements were first established along the Mediterranean coast from a series of royal grants from Frisia to the Danish Vikings: the first was in 826, when Louis the Pious granted Harald Klak the county of Rustringen to use as a retreat. Subsequent rulers did the same, usually with the aim of putting one Viking in place to defend the Frisian coast against others. A Viking army first wintered on the Seine river in 851, and there joined forces with the kings enemies, the Bretons, and Pippin II. Founding Normandy: Rollo the Walker The duchy of Normandy was founded by Rollo (Hrolfr) the Walker, a Viking leader in the early 10th century. In 911, the Carolingian king Charles the Bald ceded land including the lower Seine valley to Rollo, in the Treaty of St Clair sur Epte. That land was extended to include what is today all of Normandy by AD 933 when the French King Ralph granted the land of the Bretons to Rollos son William Longsword. The Viking court based at Rouen was always a little shaky, but Rollo and his son William Longsword did their best to shore up the duchy by marrying into the Frankish elite. There were crises in the duchy in the 940s and 960s, particularly when William Longsword died in 942 when his son Richard I was only 9 or 10. There were fights among the Normans, particularly between pagan and Christian groups. Rouen continued as a subordinate to the Frankish kings until the Norman War of 960-966, when Richard I fought against Theobald the Trickster. Richard defeated Theobald, and newly arrived Vikings pillaged his lands. That was the moment when Normans and Normandy became a formidable political force in Europe. William the Conquerer The 7th Duke of Normandy was William, the son Robert I, succeeding to the ducal throne in 1035. William married a cousin, Matilda of Flanders, and to appease the church for doing that, he built two abbeys and a castle in Caen. By 1060, he was using that to build a new power base in Lower Normandy, and that is where he began amassing for the Norman Conquest of England. You can find lots more about William the Conquerer and the Battle of Hastings elsewhere. Ethnicity and the Normans Archaeological evidence for the Viking presence in France is notoriously slim. Their villages were basically fortified settlements, consisting of earthwork-protected sites called motte (en-ditched mound) and bailey (courtyard) castles, not that different from other such villages in France and England at that time. The reason for the lack of evidence for explicit Viking presence may be that the earliest Normans tried to fit into the existing Frankish powerbase. But that didnt work well, and it was not until 960 when Rollos grandson Richard I galvanized the notion of Norman ethnicity, in part to appeal to the new allies arriving from Scandinavia. But that ethnicity was largely limited to kinship structures and place names, not material culture, and by the end of the 10th century, the Vikings had largely assimilated into the larger European medieval culture. Historic Sources Most of what we know of the early Dukes of Normandy is from Dudo of St Quentin, a historian whose patrons were Richard I and II. He painted an apocalyptic picture of Normandy in his best-known work De moribus et actis primorum normanniae ducum, written between 994-1015. Dudos text was the basis for future Norman historians including William of Jumià ¨ges (Gesta Normannorum Ducum), William of Poitiers (Gesta Willelmi), Robert of Torigni and Orderic Vitalis. Other surviving texts include the Carmen de Hastingae Proelio and the  Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Sources This article is part of the About.com guide to Vikings, and part of the Dictionary of Archaeology Cross KC. 2014. Enemy and Ancestor: Viking Identities and Ethnic Boundaries in England and Normandy, c.950 – c.1015. London: University College London. Harris I. 1994. Stephen of Rouens Draco Normannicus: A Norman Epic. Sydney Studies in Society and Culture 11:112-124. Hewitt CM. 2010. The Geographic Origins of the Norman Conquerors of England. Historical Geography 38(130-144). Jervis B. 2013. Objects and social change: A case study from Saxo-Norman Southampton. In: Alberti B, Jones AM, and Pollard J, editors. Archaeology After Interpretation: Returning Materials to Archaeological Theory. Walnut Creek, California: Left Coast Press. McNair F. 2015. The politics of being Norman in the reign of Richard the Fearless, Duke of Normandy (r. 942–996). Early Medieval Europe 23(3):308-328. Peltzer J. 2004. Henry II and the Norman Bishops. The English Historical Review 119(484):1202-1229. Petts D. 2015. Churches and lordship in Western Normandy AD 800-1200. In: Shepland M, and Pardo JCS, editors. Churches and Social Power in Early Medieval Europe. Brepols: Turnhout.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Liaison in health setting Free Essays

string(57) " the associated stigma must be addressed and considered\." Introduction There are a number of factors to consider when discussing why Saudi children are obese. Broadly, these can be broken up into genetics, socio-economic factors and societal or cultural factors. When discussing the reasons for why obesity is so prevalent, one needs to make sure that the parameters of the discussion are strictly adhered to because this is a potentially very broad topic. We will write a custom essay sample on Liaison in health setting or any similar topic only for you Order Now For example, genetics includes a complex study of human genes that make a person more prone to obesity; however these will not necessarily be relevant to the discussion between the World Health Organisation and the Saudi Arabian health minister. The focus of this research therefore will be the examination of the socio-economic and cultural factors the development of childhood obesity and how best they may be treated by services offered in a mental health institute. Research The relevant research to the topic would include any primary and secondary sources of information on the topic. Firstly, it will be useful to uncover the socio-economic or cultural/social factors contributing to childhood obesity in order to determine a common thread between the U.K and Saudi weight trends. These can encompass anything from journal articles and reports to textbooks and studies. It will also be useful to determine the possible or probable advantages of using a mental health institution as a combatant to childhood obesity. This will include examination of primary and secondary sources of information about obesity as a mental health issue. There is a wide variety of literature on the relationship between mental health and obesity. In this way the research will focus not only on the treatment as obesity as a mental health concern, but also the likely causes of obesity amongst children. It may then be useful to determine the successes and failure of mental health practice s as a treatment for obesity, by examining research conducted on these methods and the outcomes. At this stage, the existing studies on the topic do not necessitate an independent research project, however with Western studies one must be mindful of the impact of cultural differences affecting Saudi. Cultural or Other Information Worth Noting Whilst the possible genetic contribution to obesity as well as inherited lifestyle factors from a parent-child relationship are largely inconclusive and highly subjective, the relevance of these factors to the development of childhood obesity and ultimately adult obesity must be noted (Parsons et al, 1999). In noting these factors, one must acknowledge that they perhaps create a predisposition towards an obesity creating lifestyle, however for the purposes of this report these will not be dealt with. Many socio-economic and cultural factors appear to adversely affect females more significantly than their male counterparts (Parsons et al, 1999). It must be emphasized that childhood obesity plays a significant role in a large majority of adult obesity incidence and the implications for the health-services and economy of a country are largely affected but the development of an obese workforce (Parsons et al, 1999). Externally, environmental and perinatal considerations have been indicated as the main contributing risk factors for development of childhood obesity (Ebbeling et al, 2002) such as â€Å"parental fatness, social factors, birth weight, timing or rate of maturation, physical activity, dietary factors and other behavioral or psychological factors† (Parsons et al, 1999). There is some consensus that these environmental factors are the primary source of childhood obesity (Ebbeling et al, 2002) which can be combated by simple, yet politically difficult solutions. There is some evidence of this to be seen in Saudi Arabia with a significantly higher incidence of childhood obesity occurring in the more urban settings with a disparity of over 30% between these two environmental factors in some cases (al-Nuaim, 1996). These environmental factors include diet, physical activity, effects of dietary pattern, the practice of the food sector and television watching. It is clear therefore that there is a link between the urban setting of a child and the probability of developing childhood obesity. In the majority of circumstances therefore, mental health care will have little effect on preventing obesity on a large scale and there is a strong connection between poor environmental factors and obesity. Obesity and Mental Health There is a distinction to be drawn between a mental health concern as a cause of obesity and the associated psychological factors that accompany childhood obesity. There is significant evidence conducted in studies around the world that contribute obesity as a result of a compulsive eating addiction disorder (Davis and Carter, 2009). The psychological effects of compulsive overeating or food addiction are comparatively similar to those of more ‘traditional’ substance abuse such as drug or alcohol dependency. There is a similar clinical and behavioral pattern formation in the use of food as a kind of drug with severe psychological and physical effects from withdrawal and tolerance levels. One can see a similar loss of control with food addiction, cravings and relapse-potential being ultimately incredibly high (Davis and Carter, 2009). A very effective treatment of this food addiction has proven to be cognitive behavioral therapy which has a proven success rate in drug addiction patients with a low relapse rate relative to other treatment options. A mental health option of treatment for childhood obesity targeting this compulsive overeating disorder is necessary. There is further a common experience of compulsive overeating being antecedent to some kind of sexual molestation or abuse in children. Whilst the compulsive overeating may be a manifestation of the trauma suffered by the child, there are obvious and very severe psychological complications associated with sexual abuse, therefore often in treatment thereof, one deals with the obesity as a part of the consequences of addressing the psychological repercussions of the abuse (Goldfarb, 1987). Mental health care facilities for the treatment of obesity may well be the most effective treatment as it may provide a certain level of trust and privacy for the patient or child in seeking early treatment. The reception of mental health treatment and the associated stigma must be addressed and considered. You read "Liaison in health setting" in category "Essay examples" Whilst there is no stigma generally attached to a lifestyle change promoting weight loss in either target location, there is a general stigma to be addressed with the implication of labeling a patient as an addict and the associated behaviors that one attributes to this disorder. Particularly in Saudi Arabia, one must consider the societal challenges that a general perception or attitudes towards mental health care that may be presented in either case. Particularly so because children are a vulnerable group in terms of impression by piers and society generally and if this stigma is not addressed, it could lead to further psychological complications. One needs to be careful to avoid any excess attention or bullying of the child if treated in a mental health institution, particularly because there is a misconception as to the nature of obesity and the effects thereof. It is important to also realize the effects of obesity on psychological factors independent of these ‘causes’, such as low self esteem and depression amongst children. There is research to indicate that not only is depression more frequent in obese children, however that there is a link between low self esteem and depression leading to increased experimentation with cigarettes, alcohol and drug-use (Strauss, 2000). These psychological effects, if untreated, will carry over into the adult lives of the patients which can lead to increased risk of suicide, self-harm and weight related health complications. This is particularly dangerous for female patients when considering that the prevalence of obesity is higher in females and much of global obesity is attributed to pregnancy and child-bearing generally. With the U.K and Saudi Arabia being countries that are closely linked to the idea of a family nexus, this is clearly a large risk for obese female children. Glossary Binge Eating Disorder (BED): also referred to as compulsive overeating addition disorder, compulsive overeating or food addiction. This disorder affects people by making a person feel compelled to overeat on a regular basis. This disorder is akin to other eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and ED-NOS (eating disorder not other specified) (NHS, 2012). Reasons for the development of this disorder include anxiety and depression. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT): a type of therapy that encourages change in the way that one thinks and acts in accordance to certain situations. Therefore, the therapy is cognitive in that it addresses how one thinks and behavioral in addressing how one acts (NHS, 2012). Challenges The challenge with this research is in the CBT and BED aspects of the respective countries. It is safe to assume that effective health care services can be given to those suffering depression, anxiety and low self-esteem with either party, however how does the establishment of a mental health care institute significantly improve the obesity statistics. A mental health care institution is highly advantageous to patients requiring in-patient care in the facility. Would it not be more efficient to provide a more effective out-patient mental health care facility where patients could receive long-term therapy without some kind of committalThis would save cost of building the facility allowing a reallocation of the budget to more staff to improve the reach of the institute and improve the research output of the institute. The social stigma attached to mental illness is great in both the U.K and Saudi Arabia. However, the private and conservative cultural climate of Saudi Arabia may make the goals of the institute more challenging as it would require a dialogue on a topic that is considered ‘taboo’ in many societies, i.e. addiction and potentially sexual abuse. Particularly with relation to children and sexual abuse, it is foreseeable that there may be challenges in collecting data for research such as this. With children there is a large element of parental control and with information as to the causes of obesity and the depth of CBT in psychological treatment, there may be hesitation on the part of the family to ‘allow’ treatment of the child. What other support and partnerships are looking to be formed in the establishment of this instituteThere are a number of associated medical professions that are absolutely critical in combating childhood obesity, such as general medical practitioners, dietitians and nutritionists, exercise consultants and a large need for a form of liaison between the institute and parents. The entirety of obesity as a disease cannot be treated in isolation and how does one continue to have a large reach for research and treatment if there are financial limitations on these projects, as well as requiring a thorough and high level of expertise. Conclusion The use of mental health facilities as a treatment programme for childhood obesity is undoubtedly effective. The parameters of this institution must be carefully monitored and defined in order to determine the best possible solution to obesity crisis facing the world. It is recommended that these facilities provide a strong out-patient programme to allow for greater reach in the community that it is looking to serve in order to reach a larger number of patients and create awareness and education for these issues surrounding obesity. Education on the issue is absolutely vital. The stronger emphasis on an out-patient programme will also allow a reallocation of resources to employ more health care professional serving an overall purpose of the mental health care institute – being to target childhood obesity. This also allows for treatment that is minimally disruptive to the child’s everyday activities and will not serve to isolate the child, as many in-patient programmes o ften do. One needs to be specifically mindful of the societal implications and stigma attached to mental health care services and in doing so look to mitigate any harmful societal or cultural effects that the treatment may have on the child or their relationships with peers and their family members, at the same time ensuring that there is an effective establishment of the required support network to aid the child in their journey. Bibliography Al-Nuiam, AR, Bamgboye EA al-Herbish A, 1996 ‘The pattern of growth and obesity in Saudi Arabian male school children.’ International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 20(11), pp 1000 – 5 Davis and Carter, 2009 ‘Psychobiological traits in the risk profile for overeating and weight gain: Psychobiological risk profile’ International Journal of Obesity, 33, s49 – 53 Ebbeling, Cara, Dorota B Pawlak David S Ludwig, 2002, ‘Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure’, The Lancet, 460, pp 473 – 482 Goldfarb, Lori, 1987. ‘Sexual abuse antecedent to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and compulsive overeating: Three case reports.’ International Journal of Eating Disorders, 6(5), pp 675-680 National Healthcare Service United Kingdom, 2012. [online] Available on http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions [Accessed 10 June 2012] Parsons TJ, Power C, Logan S Summerbell CD, 1999 ‘Childhood predictors of adult obesity: a systematic review.’ International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders : Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 23, pp 1 – 107 Strauss, Richard, 2000 ’Childhood Obesity and Self-Esteem’ Pediatrics?105, pp15 How to cite Liaison in health setting, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Personality Assessment Myers

Introduction Personality assessment is a core activity in the field of psychology and to perform this task, a variety of instruments are available. Cervone and Pervine (2010) elaborate that personality psychology attempts to describe the whole person by considering universal traits as well as individual differences.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Personality Assessment: Myers-Briggs, Rorschach and Self-help Books specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Personality assessment helps a person to better understand themselves and the people around them. This paper will set out to analyze three personality assessment instruments: Myers-Briggs, Rorschach and Self-help books. From this analysis, the validity and relevance of each instrument will be highlighted. Myers-Briggs The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality measure developed by Isabel Briggs Myers and Katharine Cook Briggs as an extrapolation of the Swiss psychiatrist, Carl Jung’s theory of psychological types The MBTI is made up of four types: Extraversion-Introversion (EI), Sensing- Intuition (SN), Thinking-Feeling (TF), and Judging-Perception (JP) (Saggino, Cooper, Kline, 2000). EI is a measure of the tendency by the individual to focus their energy either towards self (inward) or others (outward). SN is a measure of how the person prefers to gather information. TF measures the decision making preference of a person. JP is a measure of how a person approaches life. The four preference types identified combine into a psychological type and 16 distinct personality types result from this. Strengths and weaknesses A major advantage of the Myers Briggs framework is that is helps an individual to understand their own personalities and behavior. In addition to this, the framework helps people recognize that others may be different which encourages mutual respect and a deeper appreciation for the contributions of others (Saggino et al., 2000). The scales and scoring metrics of the MBTI are well explained and an individual can easily use this tool for personality assessment. A major disadvantage of the Myers-Briggs instrument is that it is not effective in identifying subtle personality types. Cervone and Pervin (2010) note that this tool does not measure personality variation along a continuum but rather, it sets out to gauge a persons status on the extreme ends of the personality categories.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Validity The validity and reliability of MBTI has been supported by many researchers since the instrument uses scientific methods. As such, independent testers can come to the same conclusion concerning a subject’s personality by use of this tool. Even so, the validity of MBTI scale contents has been questioned by a number of researchers. For example, Miao et al. (2001) demonstrated that there is a convergent and discriminate validity of the EI, TF and JP scale. Comprehensiveness The MBTI proposes to offer insights into a person’s personality type. It does this by sorting an individual into opposite categories based on his/her predisposed preferences for attitudes and mental functions. Application The MBTI is one of the most popular personality instruments used for assessment. It is used for recruitment purposes since it highlights a person’s characteristics. It is also used by counselors to help a client better understand themselves. The cultural utility of the MBTI is very wide and it is uses vary from personal to professional. Rorschach The Rorschach test was developed by the Swiss psychologist, Hermann Rorschach as a projective test through which a person’s inner feelings could be uncovered. The instrument was designed to elicit unconscious stimuli through the use of cards with inkblots on them (Musewicz, 2009). The test involves the subject being shown inkblots and their unique perceptions of these inkblots are used to form an opinion on their personality characteristics or emotional functioning. The Rorschach test is made up of 10 cards which have ink blots on them. The subject is supposed to look at the cards and say what they see. The cards do not represent any recognizable figure and the person taking the test is supposed to say what the image looks like to them.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Personality Assessment: Myers-Briggs, Rorschach and Self-help Books specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Strengths and weaknesses The Rorschach test is mostly used to detect underlying thought disorders that an individual would not reveal in a self reporting test. A major strength of this tool lies in its ability to see beyond the things that a person is willing or able to reveal (Musewicz, 2009). In doing this, it overcome s the weaknesses inherent in self-reporting tests where a person can give the answer they think is most desirable. A major weakness is the lack of scientific evidence for the Rorschach test. This fact has led to its diminishing use in the last decade. This is because it is susceptible to the bias of the tester and the results can accuracy of the results is therefore questionable. Another major demerit of the Rorschach is that it is mostly affiliated with clinical psychology and hence not popular outside of the clinical setting. Del Guidice (2010) notes that the instrument is used to assign a clinical diagnosis which curtails its use in the mainstream setting. Validity Inter-rater reliability which is defined as the â€Å"ability of a test to measure a trait that is supposed to be stable over time† is significantly low with the Rorschach test. This is because the test is open to varied interpretations by the tester and the subjectivity may be inconsistent (Musewicz, 2009). For most professionals, interpretations are made in an intuitive manner and this can result in over diagnosis of psychological disturbances in a subject and therefore reduce the effectiveness of this instrument. Comprehensiveness In terms of comprehensiveness, the Rorschact test is limited since it only seeks to identify underlying issues with particular bias on disorders. The inferences and interpretations made from the Rorschach are subject to the biases of the person administering the test further reducing its comprehensiveness. Application The Rorschach test is mostly used by psychology professions to identify underlying issues with a client. The instrument can also be used by counselors to help a client identify issues which are underlying.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Rorschach can also be used by organizations to assist in employee selection. Giudice (2010) states that Rorschach scales that assess psychological adjustment, coping ability, and relational deficits can help in making prudent hiring decisions. Self Help Books Self help books are a category of books that are written for the chief purpose of helping the ready to gain insights into themselves and therefore effectively deal with personal issues. Self help books are written in a personal style and the reader is personally involved and positively affected by the experience (Cervone Pervin, 2010). The creation of self help books is not credited to any one individual but it is generally agreed that the self-help phenomena took place in the last half century. There is no definite scale or manner for scoring using self help books since most of them make use of the popular personality assessment tools available. Validity Self Help books have limited reliability and validity since they are meant to be used by laypersons. The validity of the results obtained is dependent on the cognitive abilities of the individual and this may vary greatly. Strengths and Weaknesses Self help books contain interpretive guidelines for personality assessment instruments that can be used by the individual to assess their personality type. These books may have precise instructions on how to administer the tests being discussed and therefore enable the individual to benefit from them. Self help books are arguably the most widely used personality assessment instrument. This is because self-help books offer an informal way to self assess therefore giving the ready the means to discover their natural personality preferences. In addition to this, they cover a myriad of issues which are of interest to the general population. A major disadvantage of self help books is that the individual may not always be in a position to make accurate interpretation of personality assessment data obtained from self-help books (Cervone, Pervin, 2010). Interpretations require the drawing of inferences about a person’s emotional state or dispositions of personality functioning. In addition to this, most self help books are too general to be of any real assistance in personality assessment. Comprehensiveness Self help books address a myriad of personality issues. By use of various personality tests, most of the aspects of personality may be covered in a single book. Some self help books make use of research findings and incorporate more information that is specific to personalities therefore increasing their value to the user. Application Self help books are mostly applicable for personal use and specifically for personal growth and development. However, the books are also recommended by counseling professionals to help the individual to develop their life. Conclusion This paper set out to compare and contrast the strengths and weaknesses of three personality assessment instruments. F rom this undertaking, it has been revealed that Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is the most applicable personality assessment instrument while the Rorschach is the least applicable. This is because most researchers favor personality assessments that are scientific in nature as opposed to projective assessment. Self help books on the other hand are often too general and may therefore not be the best option. References Cervone, D., Pervin, L.A. (2010). Personality: Theory and Research (11th Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Del Guidice, M.J. (2010). Reply to Comment on â€Å"What Might This Be? Rediscovering the Rorschach as a Tool for Personnel Selection in Organizations†. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92(1), 78-89. Miao, D. M., Huangfu, E., Chia, R. C., Ren, J. J. (2000). The validity analysis of the Chinese version MBTI. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 32(3), 324-331. Musewicz, J. (2009). Current Assessment Practice, Personality Measurement, and Rorschach Usage by Psychologists. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91(5), 453–461, Saggino, A., Cooper C., Kline, P. (2000). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Personality and Individual Differences, 30(1), 3-9. This research paper on Personality Assessment: Myers-Briggs, Rorschach and Self-help Books was written and submitted by user Justus Rowland to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

The Invention of the Wheelbarrow

The Invention of the Wheelbarrow Its one of those ideas that seems so self-evident, once you have seen it in action. Rather than carrying heavy loads on your back, or burdening a pack animal with them, you can put them into a tub or basket that has a wheel beneath and long handles for pushing or pulling. Voila!   The wheelbarrow does most of the work for you. But who first came up with this brilliant idea? Where was the wheelbarrow invented? The First Wheelbarrows Were Created in China Not too surprisingly, the first wheelbarrows seem to have been created in China - along with the first gunpowder, paper, seismoscopes, paper currency, magnetic compasses, crossbows, and many other key inventions. The exact date and the actual inventors name both seem to be lost to history, but it seems likely that people in China have been using wheelbarrows for around 2,000 years. Invented in 231 CE According to legend, the prime minister of the Shu Han Dynasty in the Three Kingdoms Period, a man named Zhuge Liang, invented the wheelbarrow in 231 CE as a form of military technology. At the time, Shu Han was embroiled in a war with Cao Wei, another of the three kingdoms for which the era is named.   The Gliding Horse Zhuge Liang needed an efficient way to transport food and munitions to the front lines, so he came up with the idea of making a wooden ox with a single wheel.  Another traditional nickname for this simple handcart is the gliding horse. Using the wooden ox, a single soldier could easily carry enough food to feed four men for the entire month. As a result, the Shu Han tried to keep the technology a secret - they did not want to lose their advantage over the Cao Wei. Archaeological Evidence This legend is very tidy and satisfying, but probably untrue.  Archaeological evidence suggests that Chinese people were using the wheelbarrow more than a century before Zhuge Liangs supposed invention of the device in 231 CE. For example, a wall painting in a tomb near Chengdu, in Sichuan Province, shows a man using a wheelbarrow - and that painting was made in 118 CE. Another tomb, also in Sichuan Province, includes a depiction of a wheelbarrow in its carved wall reliefs; that example dates back to the year 147 CE. Invented in the Second Century in Sichuan Province It seems possible, then, that the wheelbarrow was invented in the second century in Sichuan Province.   As it happens, the Shu Han Dynasty was based in what is now Sichuan and Chongqing Provinces. The Cao Wei kingdom encompassed northern China, Manchuria, and parts of what is now North Korea, and had its capital at Luoyang in present-day Henan Province. Conceivably, the people of Wei were not yet aware of the wheelbarrow and its possible military applications in 231 CE.   Thus, the legend could be half-correct.  Zhuge Liang probably did not actually invent the wheelbarrow.   Some clever farmer likely had the idea first. But the Shu prime minister and general may well have been the first to use the technology in battle - and may have tried to keep it a secret from the Wei, who had not yet discovered the ease and convenience of the wooden ox. Since that time, wheelbarrows have been used for carrying all kinds of burdens, from harvested crops to mine tailings, and pottery to building materials.  Sickly, wounded, or elderly people could be carried to the doctor, before the advent of the ambulance. As the photo above shows, wheelbarrows were still being used to carry casualties of war into the 20th century. Invented Again in Medieval Europe In fact, the wheelbarrow was such a good idea that it was invented again, apparently independently, in medieval Europe. This appears to have happened sometime in the late 12th century. Unlike Chinese wheelbarrows, which usually had the wheel under the middle of the barrow, European wheelbarrows generally had the wheel or wheels at the front.

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Precede vs. Proceed

Precede vs. Proceed Precede vs. Proceed Precede vs. Proceed By Mark Nichol Lazy pronunciation can wreak havoc on the language as word pairs like precede and proceed become confused. These similar-looking and similar-sounding terms, however, though not antonyms, face in opposite directions. The origin of the former word is the Latin term praecedere (â€Å"go before†), while the latter stems from the Latin word procedere (â€Å"go forward, advance†). Interestingly, however, the prefixes share a sense: Pre- and pro- can both mean â€Å"before,† though pro- usually signals â€Å"in favor of.† Each word is part of a family of inflections and terms based on it: One writes, for example, that a rainstorm preceded snowfall later that night, or that the preceding chapter of a book is longer than the one that follows it. Precedent refers to a situation that serves as an exemplar for others that follow. It’s employed formally in law to refer to a rule or principle that serves as a reference for judgments in cases similar to those in which the rule or principle was first set forth. Informally, laypeople refer to â€Å"establishing a precedent† for anything from a habit to a protocol. Meanwhile, a precession is a â€Å"coming before.† (In physics and astronomy, this term refers to the alteration in the orientation of a rotating body’s axis.) Inflectional forms of proceed are used to state that someone proceeded to act in some way or do something that they had not been doing previously, or that they are proceeding to do so now. The plural of the latter form is also a noun referring to the published minutes or records of an organization’s meeting. Procedure, taken directly from French and referring to a sequence for accomplishing a task, is also based on proceed. Procedural can be applied as an adjective (while procedurally is an adverb), and it stands on its own (or modified as â€Å"police procedural†) as a noun referring to genre fiction that realistically portrays how an investigation or a similar process is conducted. Want to improve your English in five minutes a day? Get a subscription and start receiving our writing tips and exercises daily! Keep learning! Browse the Misused Words category, check our popular posts, or choose a related post below:30 Synonyms for â€Å"Meeting†Round vs. AroundPrepositions to Die With

Monday, February 17, 2020

History of Islam Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

History of Islam - Assignment Example The origin of Islam is credited to Mohammad. He experienced an angelic visitation from Archangel Gabriel. The angel handed him the Quran and recited the first verses of Surah XCVI2. The pillars of Islam are: Shaddah, Salat, Zakah, Sawm, and Hajj3. They signify the things Muslims believe in as Commanded by Allah. The five pillars of Islam provide a framework on how Muslims should act. The pillars were summarized in the hadith of angel Gabriel. Shahada is an Islamic creed and a testimony of faith. The Shahada is the most important pillar as it should be known to any Muslim convert. Salat is the daily Muslim prayer. Muslims pray five times a day. Zakat is the pillar that emphasizes on giving to the needy. Sawm is the pillar which emphasizes on fasting on the holy month of Ramadan. In this month Muslims abstain from food, drinks and sexual relations. The fifth pillar is the hajj. Hajj is the pilgrimage journey to Mecca. Performing the hajj is usually a compulsory activity at least once i n a lifetime to people who are physically fit. Salat is the most significant worship. It originated from the Quran, Salat Al-Fajr 24:58, Salat Al-Isha 24:58 and Al-Salat Al-Wusta 2384. Muslims believe praying five times a day can clean all the sins of a person. At the beginning, Salat was performed three times a day. The Quran specifies three positions of performing Salat. These are standing, bowing and prostrating. Salat is the formal procedure of worship to Muslims. It has prescribed procedure, conditions and the time to be practiced. In the holy Quran, Salat is performed while standing bowing and prostrating. During the prayer Muslims are required to wash themselves before praying, an activity known as Wuddu. The main importance of Salat is to act as a person’s communicator to God. During Salat one is able to communicate more intimately with God5. It is also during Salat that Muslims have a form al way of remembering Allah. It is during Salat that Muslims give thanks to Go d for all their possessions and blessings and also pray for other needs. Salat also helps a Muslim to refrain from the social ills and moral deviancy6. Sahih Bukhari collection of hadith says that Mohammed considered salat as the best deed. According to prophet Mohamed, Allah does not listen to the cries of a person while talking but listens to person’s cries while praying. He continued and said that mercy always drops on a person’s head while praying. Salat is usually practiced at dawn, noon, afternoon, evening and night time. Adhan refers to calling of Muslims to prayer. It comprises of words that envelop the fundamentals of faith, worship and Islamic rituals. As affirmed in Bukhari, Muslims went to Madinah at prearranged time for prayer. Umar planned appointing a man to call out for prayer by recite the words of Adhan.7 It is recited from the minaret so that it can be heard from a distance, and melodiously to titivate their voice for it8. Salah is one of the pillars of Islam and prayer is the best form of worship. Every Muslim should endeavor to earn Pleasure of Allah. According to Surah 51:56, â€Å"I have created Jinns and men that they may serve me,† Adhan calls persons to prayer and proper relations. This has an effect on the performance of Salah. Adhan is a procedure in which Muslims are called to mandatory prayer. It is done five times a day to call Muslims to perform the Salat. Adhan is performed by the muezzin. Adhan is also done to